Marketing research and development of Nestle company
The concept of brand capital. Total branded product name for the whole company. Nestle as the largest producer of food in the world. Characteristics of technical and economic indicators. Nestle company’s brands. SWOT-analysis and Nestle in Ukraine.
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Тип: курсовая работа
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Краткое сожержание материала:
1. Theoretical part
1.1 The conception of brand
The decision to brand - the main question of product strategy. On the one hand, the sale of goods under the brand requires considerable long-term investment, especially in advertising, promotion and packaging. Many companies that own the trademark, charged with manufacture of the product to other companies. For example, Taiwanese companies produce a significant portion of world production of garments, consumer electronics and computers at other people's trademarks. On the other hand, manufacturers are well aware that power in the market are the companies that own trademarks. If required, company owners can submit an order to perform Taiwanese manufacturers in countries with cheaper production resources - in Malaysia or the other. Japanese and South Korean companies spent huge sums on the creation of such brands as Sony, Toyota, Goldstar and Samsung. Even in cases where these companies cannot afford to make products in the homeland, build brand loyalty guarantee their purchasing power.
What is brand?
The ability to create, develop, maintain and protect the trademark is a requirement that marketers should perform. Trademarks - the art and cornerstone of marketing. American Marketing Association gives the following definition.
Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, picture or their combination which are intended to identify goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and their differentiation from competitors' services or products.
Under U.S. trademark law the seller is given the exclusive right to use the trademark for an indefinite period, which distinguishes it from other assets such as patents and copyrights that have an expiration date.
In fact, brand is the promise of the seller to the buyer always to give specific set of qualities, values and services. Top brands also include quality assurance. But the brand is a comprehensive, six-character symbol.
* Features. First of all brand brings to mind the characteristics. So, mark «Mercedes» we associate with expensive, high quality, made constructive, reliable, high-prestige, high-speed car. Each of these characteristics may be used by for promotional purposes. For many years «Mercedes» was advertised as «constructively made car.
* Facilities. Brand is more than just a set of characteristics. Buyers do not get performance, but goods. Features should be translated into functional and / or emotional benefits: «reliability» in a functional benefit - «I do not have to buy a new car every few years», «high cost» to the emotional benefits - «machine to help me feel important and cause for admiration,» nicely done - the functional and emotional benefits - «I do not suffer in case of accident.»
* Values. Trademarks are the property mapping system manufacturer. Yes, Mercedes wants to representativeness, high security, prestige. An expert in marketing which is dealing with this brand, has to highlight specific groups of car buyers who share these values.
* Culture. Brand represents a certain culture. «Mercedes» - the embodiment of German culture: organization, efficiency, high-quality
* Individuality. Brand also admits a certain personality. If the mark was marked by a person or animal facility that comes to mind? Mercedes - a big head (man), the royal lion (animal) or strict Palace (object). Sometimes brand takes individual characteristics or personality known political figure.
* User. Brand suggests certain type of consumer who buys and uses this product. We are surprised to see how going to «Mercedes» secretary 20 years, so expect to see that driving a respectable leader. Users respect the values, culture and individuality inherent in the product.
If the company considers only the brand name, it misses the main goal of its creation. The main objective of trade marks is the development of a strong chain of values and associations. Deep called mark, the audience sees her in all six dimensions; otherwise it is superficial. Brand «Mercedes» is deep, we perceive it in all six aspects. Brand - «Audi» - not as deep as you are unlikely to quickly name the specific benefits provided by it, identity and profile.
Allowing for six levels of brand, marketing must determine at what level (levels) it will develop its individuality. Relying solely on characteristics inherent in a brand, is mistaken. Firstly, the buyer is interested not only in the characteristics of the product, how much benefit it provided. Second, competitors can easily copy your product specifications. Thirdly, that the flow characteristics can then largely lose their value and thus strike too much about them trademark. However, it is risky to promote brand based on only one or few benefits.
The most stable brand attributes - the values, culture and identity - defining its essence. Mark «Mercedes» means high technology pokaznist success. It is these benefits should be targeted strategy of this brand. We believe that if under the brand name «Mercedes» market appears inexpensive compact car, it would damage the long-term efforts to create values and individuality of the most famous brand.
The concept and measurement of brand capital
The provisions of brands is determined by its importance and value. At the lower end of the scale marks are unknown to most buyers. Further follow brands for which buyers exhibit a high degree of awareness (which is reflected both in the awareness of it and in identification). Located above grade with a high degree of brand recognition - in other words, buyers get such marks without doubt. Then, under brands that have a high degree of benefits - buyers give them an advantage over other products. Finally, there are brands that have a high degree of loyalty towards them.
D. Aaker highlights five levels of customer relations to brand, from lower to higher.
1. The buyer purchases a product under any trademark, based on price. Loyalty to the brand name is missing.
2. The buyer is satisfied. There's no reason to change the brand.
3. Buyer pleased and losses incurred when changing brands.
4. The buyer values the brand.
5. Buyer is given for trademark.
Size of brand capital is largely depends on the number of buyers that can be attributed to levels 3, 4 or 5. By D. Aakeru, it is defined as the degree of brand recognition, its obvious quality, strong rational and emotional associations, other assets such as patents, trademarks, and response system with costumers.
Some companies choose as the basis of its growth acquisition and making of a large portfolio of brands. The company Grand Metropolitan purchased different brands in the company of Pillsbury, trademark vegetables «Green Giants, ice cream» Haagen-Dazssr and hamburgers «Burger King». The company acquired Nestle brands «Rowntree» (UK), «Carnations (USA),» Stouffer «(USA), «Buitoni-Perugina» (Italy), «Pemer» (France), thus is becoming the largest company on production of nutrition. There were a costly - Nestle paid $4.5 billion for the trademark «Rowntree», an amount five times its book value that exceeded. However, the practice of displaying the value of brands in the balance sheets has not received wide distribution through a certain arbitrariness of such assessments. For example, one way to brand valuation is an additional price, which paid for the brand, augmented with additional sales on average brand.
The survey, conducted in 1994, the magazine «Financial Worlds, to the most expensive brands are world (one in the seats held):» Coca-Cola»,» Marlborosi, «Nescafe», «Kodaks,» Microsoft»,» Budweiser»,» Kellogg's»,» Motorola»,» Gillette» and» Bacardi». According to research, brand «Coca-Cola» estimated at $ 36 billion, «Marlboro» - 33 and «Nescafe» - to $ 11.5 mlrd.
The high cost brand company provides certain advantages over competitors.
* reduced marketing costs because customers trust a brand, maintain a high degree of loyalty to her.
* Company receives a certain leverage to distributors and retailers, as customers expect their products under specific brands.
* The company can charge higher prices compared with competitors because brand - synonymous with high quality.
* Companies easier expansion of commercial lines, as consumers trust a brand.
* Trademarks company provide certain protection in case of hard «price competition.
Support for high-value brand assumes control of its development: support or enhance the degree of consumer confidence in the brand, quality and functionality of the product, enhancing the positive associations customers, as well as the highest level of service. Some companies, such as Canada Dry and Colgate-Palmoliue, have filled in title «manager of brand capital», whose role is to strengthen the image of brands associated with them associations and quality - especially in cases where the brand extends to commodity line - and to prevent short-term tactical actions overly zealous managers trademarks that may damage the long-term interests of the brand.
The company R & G believe that professionally managed brands not subject to fluctuations in the life cycle. Many bra...