Leaders of the world


Biographical information about the life of Soviet and Azerbaijani state, party and political figure Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev. Becoming a political career and work as Russian President Vladimir Putin. Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German politician.

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Heydar Aliyev

Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was the third President of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from October 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev succeeded him. From 1969 to 1982, Aliyev was also the leader of Soviet Azerbaijan, effectively dominating the political life of Azerbaijan for many years.

Many of the details of Aliyev's early life are obscure. According to his hagiographical website, he was born in Nakhchivan City. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR MGB Officer Corps Qualifications-Raising School. Aliyev's official biography also claims that he studied at Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957. However, it seems that he actually attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad.

Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. In 1954, as part of a government reform, NKGB became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly within the agency to the rank of Major-General, became a deputy chairman of Azerbaijani KGB in 1964, and its chairman in 1967.

In 1969, Aliyev was appointed by Leonid Brezhnev to the post of First Secretary of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign, Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption. In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, even in Brezhnev's time, he visited Iran: Mashhad twice and Kerbala once.

On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union. Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev.

By December 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in Nagorno-Karabakh War with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian.

On 9 June 1993, after the military coup in Ganja led by Colonel Suret Huseynov, Abulfaz Elchibey was forced to invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku to mediate the crisis. On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers. In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States at the Cleveland Clinic. He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. On 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003, but in an extremely controversial move appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev died at the Cleveland Clinic He was buried at the Fakhri Khiyaban (The Alley of Honor) cemetery in Baku.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

Mustafa Kemal Atatьrk was a Turkish army officer, reformist statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatьrk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament.Ataturk was a military officer during World War I.Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish National Movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns led to victory in the Turkish War of Independence. Ataturk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state. Under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, and women were given equal civil and political rights, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced. His government also carried out an extensive policy of Turkification. The principles of Ataturk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism.

The Conference of Lausanne began on 21 November 1922. Turkey, represented by Эsmet Эnцnь of the GNA, refused any proposal that would compromise Turkish sovereignty, such as the control of Turkish finances, the Capitulations, the Straits and other issues. On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed by the Powers with the GNA, thus recognising the latter as the government of Turkey.

On 29 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed. Since then Republic Day has been celebrated as a national holiday on this date.

With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, efforts to modernise the country started. The new government analyzed the institutions and constitutions of Western states such as France, Sweden, Italy, and Switzerland and adapted them to the needs and characteristics of the Turkish nation. Highlighting the public's lack of knowledge regarding Kemal's intentions, the public cheered: "We are returning to the days of the first caliphs."[59] Mustafa Kemal placed Fevzi Зakmak, Kвzэm Цzalp and Эsmet Эnцnь in political positions where they could institute his reforms. Mustafa Kemal capitalized on his reputation as an efficient military leader and spent the following years, up until his death in 1938, instituting political, economic, and social reforms. In doing so, he transformed Turkish society from perceiving itself as a Muslim part of a vast Empire into a modern, democratic, and secular nation-state. During 1937, indications that Atatьrk's health was worsening started to appear. In early 1938, while he was on a trip to Yalova, he suffered from a serious illness. He went to Эstanbul for treatment, where he was diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver. During his stay in Эstanbul, he made an effort to keep up with his regular lifestyle for a while. He died on 10 November 1938, at the age of 57, in the Dolmabahзe Palace, where he spent his last days.[165] The clock in the bedroom where he died is still set to the time of his death, 9:05 in the morning.

Recep Tayyip ErdoGan

Recep Tayyip Erdoрan is a Turkish politician who currently serves as the incumbent 12th President of Turkey as of 28 August 2014. He previously served as the 25th Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014 and as the Mayor of Эstanbul between 1994 and 1998. He founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001, leading it to three general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before stepping down as leader upon his election as President in 2014. Educated at a Imam Hatip school and graduating from Marmara University in 1981, Erdoрan was also a semi-professional footballer playing for Kasэmpaюa between 1969 and 1982 before being elected Mayor of Эstanbul from the Islamist Welfare Party in 1994. He was banned from office and sentenced to prison for 10 months after reciting a religiously incriminating poem in Siirt in 1998. He founded the moderately conservative AKP in 2001 and won the 2002 general election with nearly two-thirds of the seats in parliament with Abdullah Gul becoming Prime Minister of the first single-part government since 1987. Erdoрan became Prime Minister in March 2003 after Gьl's government annulled his political ban. As Prime Minister, Erdoрan began negotiations for Turkey's ascension to the European Union, presided over an economic recovery following an economic crash in 2001, initiated an allegedly Neo-Ottoman foreign policy, began a peace process with PKK separatists and held two successful referendums on constitutional reform in 2007 and 2010. At the same time, child poverty rose to 66% while Turkey suffered the highest number of workers' deaths in Europe, with 301 miners being killed in...