Methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age
Process of learning a foreign language with from an early age. The main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment. Distinguish different types of language proficiency.
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Karaganda State University named after E.A.Buketov
28 Universitetskaya street, Karaganda, 100028, Kazakhstan
Methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age
G. N. Akbayeva
K. D. Bekbatyrova
This article is written for students of the Faculty of Foreign Languages of pedagogical skills , teachers of foreign languages in secondary and higher educational institutions of various types and range of people who care about the problems of teaching foreign languages . We think that the material presented will help the students - future teachers of foreign languages in mastering course content and methodology will be a tool to stimulate research and teaching. Hopefully, the article will be useful not only for students , but also teachers of various educational institutions and all those who are interested in methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age .
In order to properly build the process of learning a foreign language with from an early age , you must know that there is a foreign language to be understood by learning / language acquisition , language learning . The concept of " foreign language" as a subject arose during the second half of the XVIII century as a result of growth in the number of scientific publications in national languages . Since that time, began to study foreign languages with focus on practical problems associated with the need to be able to read books in the languages of different nations. Foreign Language - the language when in an environment almost no or no its carriers . A foreign language is understood language that is being studied in the educational process in vitro and which is used along with their native language in everyday communication.
To distinguish between the concepts of " native language " and " second language " in science there are various criteria . The optimal criterion is the origin. According to the criterion of origin native language - is the mother language of the mother begins to communicate with the child since its birth . G. E. Utebalieva defines native language as "an individual who has mastered in early childhood as a primary means of communication with the real part of the native language and uses it as a tool of their cognitive development "  . Native language - a language in which the child began to speak and said his first word (A. A. Leontiev) . The notion of "mother tongue" when choosing the language of instruction in educational institutions adequately replaced by the concept of "basic functional language", that is the language which the 5 -6 -year-old child is fluent . In a multicultural society, the basic functional languages can be more than one. This makes difficult the separation of languages for native and non-native. 
Second language can be produced in two variants: a foreign language and second language. Foreign language study is its natural conditions of existence. Serves as a second language along with their native or after the second means of communication. Under a second language means the language generated in vivo as a result of its operation to communicate with speakers of the language. 
Second language - a language that is usually absorbed in the social environment, where it is a real means of communication . He widely employed in the society in which the child develops. In sociolinguistic terms, this language of the majority or official language.
Thus, the main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment is the natural language environment and artificial language environment (apart from the target language country), as well as the nature of the process of language acquisition: manageable teacher-led , uncontrollable nature of language acquisition and the combined character of second language acquisition .
However, this difference is conditional, and set clear boundaries between them is difficult. Foreign language and second language may in appropriate circumstances easily "jump" into each other. For example, the English language in Kazakhstan - is a foreign language, and for immigrants who are learning the language as a means of everyday communication in England, he became the second language. Immigrants who left England and returned to his country, English transits from the second rank in the category of DICE . It gives the basis for all existing differences between foreign language and the second language is not an absolute these concepts. Since under the subject methods talking about ways to improve the training system foreign language, it would be better to look for differences between them at the level of the concepts of "controlled" language acquisition and "uncontrolled" language acquisition. Controlled process of language acquisition is associated with concepts such as language teaching and language learning . By definition IV Rakhmanov , " learning a foreign language - is" a process of systematic and consistent messages teacher imparting knowledge and skills in foreign languages , it is a process of active and informed students of their assimilation " . From this definition, it is obvious that the process of learning - is a bilateral process , including training activities foreign language teacher and student learning activities ( learning the language ) . This work aims at studying / language acquisition. Between the concepts of " language learning " and " language acquisition " there are significant differences . The notion of "learning" language is broader than the concept of " mastery " language . The process of language acquisition may be unintentional , it is characterized by an unconscious , intuitive language acquisition . It is constructed according to the laws of mastering their own language. Language learning is a process of deliberate , involving primarily the purposeful use of language and assimilation theory , rules of linguistic resources . Of course, you can study and native language, which the child already owns almost what happens when he comes to school . Language learning is the ultimate goal of mastering the language.
Depending on the conditions in which the age at which language learners and what we want to target , distinguish different types of language proficiency : the first possession , the native language - monolingualism ; ownership from the beginning of development of speech in two languages simultaneously - Bilingualism , speak several languages - multilingualism ; possession of second language ( bilingualism ) along with the first ( native ) , where the first language is either completely or partially formed, and foreign language in a variety of environments learning: in a natural language environment and beyond. In relation to domestic conditions in school can talk about training or DICE (the latter type of language ) , or on the development of bilingualism : language national republic ( national administrative area in which the student resides ) and native language, or on multilingualism : native language, national language , foreign language (s) . While bilingualism may be children and adults . As for DICE , the conditions of learning in secondary school ( high school ) we can talk about the development of artificial bilingualism . teaching language age
Geopolitical and economic situation of our country gives reason to believe that for the majority of students studying conditions DICE are "artificial" nature . In this case, we can only talk about the controlled study of Linguistics in isolation from the language environment , that is, we can talk about language learning , which is characterized by systematic and planned , specially selected and methodically interpret educational content , the presence of instructional techniques and methods of work , as well as certain limited time . To the learning process has been effective , it is necessary to know what kind of laws occurs mastering a foreign language school . As noted above , the process of learning a foreign language includes teacher training activities and student learning activities . Therefore, the methodological problems should be considered in two aspects are closely interrelated : from the perspective of teacher training activities and in terms of individual student learning activities on mastering their subject "foreign language ."
Any training is to transfer knowledge and skills formation . Organized such knowledge and skills acquired in the presence of a planned learning process. For such a complex system as a learning process to function effectively , it is necessary to know its laws . Laws of learning together and make learning theory or technique . Technique is a science teacher . Methodology of teaching foreign languages - is the science that investigates the objectives, content , methods and tools for learning and teaching methods and education for foreign language material . It explores the teaching and learning of a foreign language and culture during the interaction of all subjects of the educational process with each other and with the language as an object of assimilation / learning . Generalized whole range of problems that solves methods of teaching foreign languages ??as a science that can be represented schematically : We emphasize that the original and primary in the teaching of foreign languages ??is the goal , it determines all other components . Feature and specific technique as a science is that all the questions on the scheme , with autonomous and equitable , should be addressed in conjunction . This allows you to build an adequate model o...