The concept of morality


The problem of regulation relations between morality and interests of individual and society. Basic concepts of the essence of morality: moral activity, relationships, moral consciousness. The main social function of morality and its primitive forms.

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1. The concept of morality, its constituents

2. Primitive forms of morality

3. Morality and tradition


1. The notion of morality, its constituents

Etymologically the term "morality" comes to the Latin word «mos» (set «mores»), which indicates the "character". Another meaning of the word - the law, rule, order. In contemporary philosophical literature on moral ethics course, a special form of social consciousness and a kind of public relations, one of the main ways to regulate human actions in society by means of rules.

Morality arises and evolves based on the needs of society to regulate the behavior of people in different areas of their lives. Morality is one of the methods available to people understanding the complex processes of social life. A root of the problem is to regulate relations between morality and interests of individual and society.

Moral ideals, principles and rules of any representations from people about justice, humanity, good, public goods, etc. The behavior of people who meet these representations appear moral, opposite - immoral. In other words, the moral that, in the opinion of people in the interests of society and individuals. That brings the greatest benefits. Naturally, these presentation varied from century to century, and besides, they were different in various layers and groups. Hence there is morality in the specificity of different professions. All of the grounds to say that morality has historic, social class and professional nature.

Broad field of morality, but nevertheless richness of human relations can be reduced to relations:

* individual and society;

* individual and collective;

* the staff and the community;

* staff and staff;

* man and man;

* Rights to herself.

Thus, the decision of questions of morality entitled not only collective but also individual consciousness: moral authority of someone depends on how correctly he understands the general moral principles and ideals of society and reflected in their historical necessity. Objectivity and exactly grounds allow self-identity, as his own consciousness, to accept and implement technical requirements, make decisions, develop rules of life for themselves and evaluate what happens. Here, mouth problem ratio will and necessity. The correct determination of the general grounds of morality does not mean an unequivocal withdrawal of his specific moral norms or principles, and direct passage of the individual "historical trend". moral activity includes not only performance, but creativity and new norms and principles, being more all meets modern ideals and ways of their implementation.

Aimless search for the exact determination of the essence of morality, it tried unsuccessfully to do even in antiquity. You can only mark a basic framework of concepts that "make" this science:

* moral activity - an essential component of morality, which manifests itself in deeds. Act, or set of behaviors characterizing individual behavior gives an idea of its true morality. Therefore, only activities and realization of moral principles and rules allow individual right to recognition in her true moral culture. Deed in turn contains three components:

1. Motive - morally conscious motivation to do or act the same motivation - a set of motives, which means the advantage of certain moral values in the choice of the individual committing an act. For example ... Two friends, employees oxygen plant, sat in the evaporator. Standing hot summer. One said: "Good to ostudytysya out!". Another quickly turned the shutter, resulting in what he said was frozen alive that broke pairs of oxygen ...

It would seem that in this case no direct intentions to commit an offense and the criminal result here does not match the motives and goals of action. Here the motivation is seemingly made by inadequate actions. It acts rather be called bezmotyvnym but "zhornutist reasons", his situational conditionality does not mean his absence. This impulsive action was not criminal purpose and proper motive, but this worked stereotypical willingness to act carelessly, thoughtlessly, under the influence of some isolated representations ...

2. The result - material or spiritual implications of actions that have specified values.

3. Rating surrounding, both the act and its outcome and motive. Rating deeds produced in correlation with its social significance: its value for a particular person, persons, group, society, etc.

So, not every act this action, but action is motivated by subjective, that is for someone so audacious and value to a specified ratio (estimate). Act can be moral, immoral or pozamoralnym, but, nevertheless, that irreparable. For example, ... raise the unit to attack morally, but if the attack will lead to irrational and senseless death, that this should not only immoral but criminal.

* Moral (moral) relationships - relationships in starostas come people doing things. Moral relations are subjective dialectics (motivation, interests, desires) and objective (norms, ideals, good luck) with which accounted considered, and for individuals who have an imperative character. Entering the moral relationship, people impose on themselves defined moral obligations and at the same time impose a moral law.

* moral consciousness - involves cognition, knowledge, motivation and volitional decisive influence on moral and ethical activity relationships. It also includes: moral identity, moral self-image. Moral consciousness always axiological, because each of its element, it concludes with the assessment position produced by the system of values and based on a certain set of moral norms, patterns, principles, traditions and ideals. Moral consciousness as a system of assessments with signs or plus or minus, reflecting the reality in the light of approval and condemnation, by contrast good and evil, and related activities, intent - these categories in questions of ethics are paramount. Aristotle, for the first time in European ethics fully considered the concept of "intention" is understood as the reason for his virtue and consciously opposed, distinguished from the will and representation ("Nykomahova Ethics, Book III, r.4, 5, 6, 7). The intention is not right that cannot be done, and directed that the man in power, it concerns a means to achieve the goal (you cannot say: I'm going to be blessed) as opposed to the will of all that can deal with the impossible ( desire immortality, for example) and send that out of our power (desire wins a particular competitor in the race), the purposes of man. Kernel ideas of Aristotle, according to which the concerns of intention and the will - the objectives of human activities, is that content going to be, as a rule, the implementation of goals, real, taken in unity with the means to achieve them. The intention is also not present. The first is always practically oriented, yields in the world just what people in power, the second extends to all: the everlasting, and the impossible and the first differences between good and evil, second - validity and falsity and the first indication is to act, says what to pursue and what to avoid, what to do with the subject, the second examines what the subject itself and how it is useful and the first praise when it agrees with debt, second - when it is truly; first concerns what is known, the second that we do not know. In addition, completing his comparative description of Aristotle, the best intentions and the best representation not found in the same people. Own a significant sign of intent Aristotle sees is that it is preceded by pre-selection, weighing motives under which he first understands the different role of reason, that motivates and pleasures: "It is something that is elected to other mostly.

2. Primitive forms of morality

morality society

The main social function of morality, which determines the specificity of social being - a feature of the regulation of human behavior and interpersonal relationships.

No society could be a motivated and be a chaotic clash of selfish interests blind sat, no normalized and not regulated. This hypothetical situation of zero ordering society-tion of life British philosopher T. Hobbes (1588-1679), described as «bellum omnium contra omnes» («the war of all against all" - Lat.). Intolerance of such a state of society makes people, according to Hobbes, UC fins between a kind of agreement, the social contract that, on the basis of reciprocity, limiting the right of every individual, thus must ensure implementation of these bases among them, especially the right to life and its protection (which implies the emergence of state and law).

However, before the idea of Hobbes social contract thinkers put forward late antiquity, in the XVI century. we find it in the Netherlands sociologist and lawyer G. Greece (1583-1645), later it developed such prominent thinkers as J. Locke, Spinoza, Kant, J.J. Rus co. This idea reflected the belief in the immanence (internal prytamannosti) social life of people of certain forms of its legal regulation.

In fact, we see that in the initial team of human mu as it zoomed past the general biological determinants...